Grades 11 & 12

*Adverbial Clauses*

An adverbial clause (or an adverb clause) is a group of words which plays the role of an adverb. (Like all clauses, an adverbial clause will contain a subject and a verb.) For example:

  • Keep hitting the gong hourly.
  • (normal adverb)

  • Keep hitting the gong until I tell you to stop.
  • (adverbial clause)

In the examples above, the normal adverb and adverbial clause both tell us when the gong is to be hit. They are both adverbs of time. All adverbs (including adverbial clauses) can usually be categorized as one of the following:

I. Adverbs of Time

An adverb of time states when something happens or how often. An adverb of time often starts with one of the following subordinating conjunctions: after, as, as long as,as soon as, before, no sooner than, since, until, when, or while. Here are some examples:

  • After the game has finished, the king and pawn go into the same box. (Italian Proverb)
  • I stopped believing in Santa Claus when my mother took me to see him in a department store, and he asked for my autograph. (Shirley Temple)
  • As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)

II. Adverbs of Place

An adverb of place states where something happens. An adverb of place often starts with a preposition (e.g., in, on, near) or one of the following subordinating conjunctions:anywhere, everywhere, where, or wherever. Here are some examples:

  • In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something for me to do. (Dorothea Dix)
  • I am not afraid of the pen, the scaffold, or the sword. I will tell the truth wherever I please. (Mother Jones)

III. Adverbs of Manner

An adverb of manner states how something is done. An adverb of manner often starts with one of the following subordinating conjunctions: as, like, or the way. Here are some examples:

  • He acts like it is a joke.
  • We don’t have conversations. You talk at me the way a teacher talks to a naughty student.
  • Except for an occasional heart attack, I feel as young as I ever did. (Robert Benchley)

IV. Adverbs of Degree or Comparison

An adverb of degree states to what degree something is done or offers a comparison. An adverb of degree often starts with one of the following subordinating conjunctions:than, as…as, so…as, or the…the. Here are some examples:

  • A vacuum is a hell of a lot better than some of the stuff that nature replaces it with. (Tennessee Williams)
  • He is as smart as he is tall.
  • She is not so bright as she thinks she is.

Sometimes, the verb in an adverb of degree is understood (i.e., not present). For example:
•  You are taller than I. (In this example, the verb am has been omitted. This is permissible.)

•  You are taller than I am.  (This is the full version.)

  • You are taller than me.  (This is the colloquial version. This version might irk some of your grammar-savvy readers, but it is acceptable.)

V. Adverbs of Condition

An adverb of condition states the condition for the main idea to come into effect. An adverb of condition often starts with if or unless. Here are some examples:

  • If the facts don’t fit the theory, change the facts. (Albert Einstein)
  • If the English language made any sense, a catastrophe would be an apostrophe with fur. (Doug Larson)
  • If all the rich people in the world divided up their money among themselves, there wouldn’t be enough to go around. (Christina Stead, 1903-1983)

VI. Adverbs of Concession

An adverb of concession offers a statement which contrasts with the main idea. An adverb of concession often starts with one of the following subordinating conjunctions:though, although, even though, while, whereas, or even if. Here are some examples:

  • Although golf was originally restricted to wealthy, overweight Protestants, today it’s open to anybody who owns hideous clothing. (Dave Barry)
  • A loud voice cannot compete with a clear voice, even if it’s a whisper. (Barry Neil Kaufman)

VII. Adverbs of Reason

An adverb of reason offers a reason for the main idea. An adverb of reason often starts with one of the following subordinating conjunctions: as, because, given, or since. Here are some examples:

  • I don’t have a bank account, because I don’t know my mother’s maiden name. (Paula Poundstone)
  • Since you are like no other being ever created since the beginning of time, you are incomparable. (Brenda Ueland)

Properties of an Adverbial Clause

Here are the properties of an adverbial clause:

  • An adverbial clause is an adjunct. This means it can be removed without the sentence being grammatically wrong.
  • An adverbial clause is a dependent clause. This means it cannot stand alone as meaningful sentence in its own right.
  • An adverbial clause usually starts with a subordinating conjunction (e.g., although,because, if, until, when).
  • An adverbial clause will contain a subject and a verb. (This is what makes it a clause as opposed to a phrase.)


*Pronouns (Местоимения)*

Pronouns are divided into the following groups: personal, possessive, reflexive, demonstrative, and indefinite. Местоимения делятся на следующие группы: личные, притяжательные, возвратные, указательные, неопределенные.

Personal pronouns have two cases: the nominative and the object (indirect). Личные местоимения имеют два падежа: именительный и объектный (косвенный).

Personal pronouns are used in the function of the subject and answer the questions who? or what? Личные местоимения употребляются в функции подлежащего и отвечают на вопрос кто? что?

In English, all animals are ranked as neuter pronoun and are replaced by ”it.” В английском языке все животные причисляются к среднему роду и заменяются местоимением it

Personal pronouns in oblique cases correspond to Russian oblique case (genitive, dative, accusative, prepositional). Личные местоимения в косвенном падеже соответствуют русским косвенным падежам (родительному, дательному, винительному, предложному).

For example, например: me – мне, меня, (со) мной

In sentences these pronouns function as a supplement and are after the predicate. В предложении эти местоимения выполняют функцию дополнения и стоят после сказуемого.


Pronouns in oblique cases can be used with the prepositions with me and about me.

Местоимения в косвенном падеже могут употребляться с предлогами with me – со мной, about me – обо мне.

Learn the following verbs, выучите следующие глаголы:

1.    to answer – отвечать

2.    to ask – спрашивать

3.    to close – закрывать

4.    to cut-резать

5.    to dance – танцевать

6.    to do-делать

7.    to drink-пить

8.    to give – давать

9.    to help – помогать

10.    to know-знать

11.    to like – любить, нравиться

12.    to look – смотреть

13.    to open – открывать

14.    to phone – звонить

15.    to play – играть

16.    to read – читать

17.    to send – посылать

18.    to show – показывать

19.    to smoke – курить

20.    to thank – благодарить

21.    to take-брать

22.    to translate – переводить

23.    to write – писать

Exercise: Translate the following sentences.

Упражнение: Переведите следующие предложения.

1.    Give him.

2.    Show them.

3.    Look at it.

4.    I know them.

5.    Phone us.

6.    Help her.

7.    Ask us.

8.    Dance with me.

9.    Drink coffee with us.

Exercise: Complete the following sentences appropriate form of personal pronouns.

Упражнение:  Дополните следующие предложения соответствующей формой личных местоимений.

1.    The children are playing. Teachers are looking at….

2.    The table is not clean. Clean….

3.    Look at this computer. … is very expensive.

4.    His homework is difficult. Help….

5.    My students are nice. I like….

6.    These books are not good. I don’t like….

7.    This car is good. I like….

Possessive pronouns are used to determine identity. They answer the question whose? whose? In English these pronouns do not have categories of gender and number:

Притяжательные местоимения используются для определения принадлежности. Они отвечают на вопрос чей? whose? В английском языке эти местоимения не имеют категории рода и числа:

ту – мой, моя, мое, мои

Simply join a form of possessive pronoun before a noun.

Простая присоединяемая форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется перед существительным в функции определения.

My friend – мой друг

Independent or absolute forms of possessive pronouns are used in a sentence instead of the noun.

Независимая или абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется в предложении вместо существительного.

Whose book is this? – It’s mine.

It’s my book.

Possessive pronouns , притяжательные местоимения чей? чья? чье? чьи?

This is in opposition to the Russian pronouns, which use their own possessive pronouns which correspond to the subject.

Вместо русского местоимения свой используется притяжательное местоимение, которое соответствует подлежащему.


I am doing my homework. – Я делаю свое домашнее задание.

You are doing your homework. – Ты делаешь свое домашнее зад ание. Не is doing his homework. – Он делает свое домашнее задание.

She is doing her homework. – Она делает свое домашнее задание.

We are doing our homework. – Мы делаем свое домашнее задание. They are doing their homework. – Они делают свое домашнее задание

Exercise: Translate the following phrases/word combinations

Упражнение:  Переведите следующие словосочетания: our photo, their phone number, her piano, his class, their music, our dentist, your mother, their wives, your computer, its screen (экран), his father, our teacher, their sportsmen.

Exercise: Say this in English

Упражнение 12. Скажите это по-английски: их друзья, наш брат, ваш номер, твой спорт, его домашняя работа, моя книга, ее фото, наши студенты, их учитель, ее отец, ваши книги, их врачи, ваша жена, твой телефон.

Exercise: Translate the pronouns given in parentheses.

Упражнение: Переведите местоимения, данные в скобках.

1.    This book is (их).

2.    This camera is (моя).

3.    This passport is (ваш).

4.    This room is (наша).

5.    This vase is (ее).

6.    This photo is (их).

7.    This car is (наша).

8.    This bag is (твой).

Exercise: Translate sentences according to the model. Model:

Упражнение: Переведите предложения по образцу. Образец: Мы в своей комнате. – We are in our room

1.    Он в своей машине.

2.    Они в своем саду (garden).

3.    Вы в своем парке (park).

4.    Я в своей квартире (flat).

5.    Она в своем классе.

6.    Мы в своем доме.

7.    Ты в своем дворе (yard).

8.    Они в своем классе.

9.    Мы в своем саду.

10. Я в своей комнате (room).

Reflexive and Amplified Pronouns

Возвратные и усилительные местоимения

Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding -self to personal or possessive pronouns in the singular and  -selves to personal or possessive pronouns in the plural.

Возвратные местоимения образуются путем прибавления -self к личным или притяжательным местоимениям единственного чис-ла и -selves к личным или притяжательным местоимениям множественного числа.

Reflexive pronouns indicate the transition effect on the character itself:

Возвратные местоимения означают переход действия на само действующее лицо:

She hurt herself. – Она ушиблась (повредила себя).

They hurt themselves. – Они ушиблись.

I wash myself with cold water. – Я моюсь холодной водой.

To emphasize the fact that the action was committed by the person himself unaided use the reinforcement pronouns which are identical in form with the reflexive. They correspond to the Russian words “he,” “she,” and  “self.”

Для подчеркивания того, что действие совершено самим данным лицом без посторонней помощи употребляются усилительные местоимения, по форме совпадающие с возвратными. Они соответствуют русским словам «сам», «сама», «само».

I can do it myself. – Я один (сам) могу сделать это.

Exercise: Translate the reflexive pronouns given in parentheses.

Упражнение: Переведите возвратные местоимения, данные в скобках.

1.    I see (себя) in the mirror.

2.    We see (себя) in the mirror.

3.    They see (себя) in the mirror.

4.    You see (себя) in the mirror.

5.    He sees (себя) in the mirror.

6.    She sees (себя) in the mirror.

7.    The cat sees (себя) in the mirror.


Demonstrative Pronouns

Указательные местоимения

This – этот, эта, это

These – эти

That -тот, та, то

Those – те

Demonstrative pronouns are used as pronouns  – adjectives that function as definitions  for pronouns and  nouns in the form of subject and object.

употребляются как местоимения-прилагательные в функции определения и как местоимения-существительные в функции подлежащего и дополнения.

This book is mine (определение). – Эта книга – моя.

This is a book (подлежащее). – Это – книга.

In English, the demonstrative pronoun functions as the subject and agrees in number with the noun part of the predicate, for example:

В английском языке указательные местоимения в функции подлежащего согласуются в числе с именной частью составного сказуемого, например:

Это стол.    This is a table.

Это столы.    These are tables.

То наш стол.    That is our table.

To наши столы.    Those are our tables.

Exercise: Put the demonstrative pronoun in the plural, and make the appropriate changes in the sentences.

Упражнение: Поставьте указательное местоимение во множественном числе и сделайте соответствующие изменения в предложениях.

1.    This is an apple.

2.    That woman is a teacher.

3.    This is a letter.

4.    That is a file.

5.    This child is her son.

6.    Is this a letter?

7.    Is this pen yours?

8.    That bag is mine.

9.    This car is hers.

10. Is this man a doctor?

Exercise: Translate the following sentences into English.

Упражнение: Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.

1.    Это мои друзья.

2.    Это газеты (newspapers), а то журналы (magazines).

3.    Эти газеты свежие, а те газеты старые.

4.    Это ваши книги? – Да.

5.    Это не ее письма (letters).

6.    Это шляпа (hat) Анны?

7.    Это не моя сумка.

8.    Это чай, а то кофе.

9.    Это не мои книги.

10. Это наши учителя

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